- There are as many teaching models as there are ways of learning.
- Models of teaching are based on theories of learning.
- Models of teaching support different teaching and learning strategies.
- Models of teaching are typically discipline-specific.
- Most teachers teach in the same way they were taught.
- Information Processing Family of Teaching Models
- Inquiry-based learning
- Scientific method
- Creativity-based models: Synectics
- Social Learning Family of Models
- Collaborative learning models
- Role playing models
- Jurisprudential models
- Personal Family of Models
- Developmental models
- Learner-centered teaching
- Behavioral Systems Family of Models
- Mastery learning
- Directed learning (by expert/teacher)
- Simulations-based learning
- Feedback-centered models
- Constructivist Models
- Problem-based learning
- Project-based learning
- Describe (problem statement)
- Predict (hypothesis)
- Design the experiment
- Test the hypothesis
- Interpret the data
- Communicate and extend the study
- Divergent thinking
- Metaphoric and analogical thinking
- “The highest level of observational learning
is achieved by first organizing and rehearsing the modeled behavior
symbolically and then enacting it overtly. Coding modeled behavior into
words, labels or images results in better retention than simply observing.
- Individuals are more likely to adopt a modeled behavior if it results in outcomes they value.
- Individuals are more likely to adopt a modeled
behavior if the model is similar to the observer and has admired status
and the behavior has functional value.” (1-3, see Tip database below)
- Identify social problems
- Investigate societal values
- Orient protected groups to social problems
- Define vocabulary of culture or group identifiers
- Explore logical validity of hypothesis
- Gather and reconcile data related to hypothesis
- Propose generalizations, solutions, conclusions
- Orientation to the case
- Identify issues and positions
- Explore assumptions for different positions
- Take a position
- Refine and qualify the position
- Test assumptions about facts, definitions, and consequences
- “Behavior that is positively reinforced will reoccur; intermittent reinforcement is particularly effective
- Information should be presented in small amounts so that responses can be reinforced ("shaping")
- Reinforcements will generalize across similar stimuli ("stimulus generalization") producing secondary
conditioning.” (1-3, see Tip database below)
- “Adults need to be involved in the planning and evaluation of their instruction.
- Experience (including mistakes) provides the basis for learning activities.
- Adults are most interested in learning subjects that have immediate relevance to their job or personal life.
- Adult learning is problem-centered rather than content-oriented.” (1-4, see Tip database below)
- “Instruction must be concerned with the
experiences and contexts that make the student willing and able to learn (readiness).
- Instruction must be structured so that it can be easily grasped by the student (spiral organization).
- Instruction should be designed to facilitate
extrapolation and or fill in the gaps (going beyond the information
given).” (1-3, see Tip database below)
- Learner builds on prior understandings and experiences
- Problem-based learning
- Cooperative learning
- Experiential/authentic learning
- Situated learning
- Case-based learning
- Discovery learning
“Instructional Design Models”
“Theory into Practice Database”
Models of Teaching by Bruce R. Joyce, Marsha Weil, and Emily Calhoun;
Allyn and Bacon, 2003.