Addressing Multiple Cognitive Levels

Bloom’s Taxonomy classifies verbs (process clues) by cognitive levels and is useful in preparing Student Learning Outcomes and Selecting Assessment Tools.

Bloom’s Taxonomy Notes:

All levels of learning are important. The lower levels support the higher levels; the higher levels cannot function effectively without the lower levels.

The higher levels are more complex, not necessarily more difficult. Difficulty depends on prerequisite knowledge and skills.

The process words do not guarantee the level. They must be presented in a context that ensures the appropriate level is addressed.

Knowledge Arrange, define, describe, designate, duplicate, enumerate, identify, indicate, know, label, list, match, name, recall, recite, recognize, record, repeat, reproduce, select, state
Comprehension Alter, change, cite, convert, demonstrate, describe, discuss, estimate, explain, express, extrapolate, generalize, give examples, identify, illustrate, indicate, interpret, paraphrase, predict, recognize, report, represent, restate, revise, rewrite, simplify, summarize, translate
Application Apply, articulate, calculate, chart, collect, compute, construct, contribute, demonstrate, derive, determine, develop, discover, dramatize, employ, establish, extend, illustrate, implement, include, investigate, manipulate, operate, organize, predict, prepare, preserve, produce, project, provide, relate, schedule, show, sketch, solve, transfer, translate, use, utilize, write
(considered a higher level)
Analyze, break down, categorize, compare, contrast, correlate, determine, diagram, differentiate, discriminate, distinguish, examine, experiment, identify, induce, infer, inspect, outline, prioritize, question, recognize, relate, select, separate, subdivide, solve, test
(considered a higher level)
Assemble, build, collaborate, collect, combine, communicate, compile, compose, construct, create, design, devise, develop, facilitate, formulate, generate, incorporate, integrate, intervene, manage, model, modify, negotiate, organize, perform, plan, prepare, produce, propose, reinforce, relate, reorganize, revise, set up, structure, substitute, synthesize, unite
(considered a higher level)
Appraise, argue, assess, conclude, contrast, criticize, critique, decide, defend, estimate, evaluate, grade, interpret, judge, justify, predict, rate, reframe, revise, score, select, support, value, verify

In addition to the information included here, we invite you to participate in events focused on Assessment listed in our calendar and to contact the Faculty Center for additional assistance.


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Barry Mauer
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Martha Garcia
College of Arts and Humanities Martha   Garcia I believe in applying teacher-student collaboration through instruction, research, and service. My teaching and learning practice incorporates concepts and premises that I help learners apply pragmatically. I also believe my teaching functions in conjunction with the values of the institution I serve. In t...