Addressing Multiple Cognitive Levels

Bloom’s Taxonomy classifies verbs (process clues) by cognitive levels and is useful in preparing Student Learning Outcomes and Selecting Assessment Tools.

Bloom’s Taxonomy Notes:

All levels of learning are important. The lower levels support the higher levels; the higher levels cannot function effectively without the lower levels.

The higher levels are more complex, not necessarily more difficult. Difficulty depends on prerequisite knowledge and skills.

The process words do not guarantee the level. They must be presented in a context that ensures the appropriate level is addressed.

COGNITIVE LEVELS
PROCESS CLUES
Knowledge Arrange, define, describe, designate, duplicate, enumerate, identify, indicate, know, label, list, match, name, recall, recite, recognize, record, repeat, reproduce, select, state
Comprehension Alter, change, cite, convert, demonstrate, describe, discuss, estimate, explain, express, extrapolate, generalize, give examples, identify, illustrate, indicate, interpret, paraphrase, predict, recognize, report, represent, restate, revise, rewrite, simplify, summarize, translate
Application Apply, articulate, calculate, chart, collect, compute, construct, contribute, demonstrate, derive, determine, develop, discover, dramatize, employ, establish, extend, illustrate, implement, include, investigate, manipulate, operate, organize, predict, prepare, preserve, produce, project, provide, relate, schedule, show, sketch, solve, transfer, translate, use, utilize, write
Analysis
(considered a higher level)
Analyze, break down, categorize, compare, contrast, correlate, determine, diagram, differentiate, discriminate, distinguish, examine, experiment, identify, induce, infer, inspect, outline, prioritize, question, recognize, relate, select, separate, subdivide, solve, test
Synthesis
(considered a higher level)
Assemble, build, collaborate, collect, combine, communicate, compile, compose, construct, create, design, devise, develop, facilitate, formulate, generate, incorporate, integrate, intervene, manage, model, modify, negotiate, organize, perform, plan, prepare, produce, propose, reinforce, relate, reorganize, revise, set up, structure, substitute, synthesize, unite
Evaluation
(considered a higher level)
Appraise, argue, assess, conclude, contrast, criticize, critique, decide, defend, estimate, evaluate, grade, interpret, judge, justify, predict, rate, reframe, revise, score, select, support, value, verify

In addition to the information included here, we invite you to participate in events focused on Assessment listed in our calendar and to contact the Faculty Center for additional assistance.

 

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